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柴油发电机组排气烟色故障分析(English)

柴油发电机组排气烟色故障分析(English)

Diesel engine operating temperature under normalcircumstances, the color of the exhaust fumes should be colorless or pale gray,the so-called colorless is not completely colorless, not like the gasolineengine as colorless, but accompanied by a touch of gray in colorless, which isnormal exhaust smoke color. Diesel engine at idle, the exhaust smoke color maybe heavier, high-speed, high load may be heavier, to observe and normal exhaustsmoke color can conducted to determine and analyze non-normal exhaust smokecolor. Complete combustion of diesel fuel, the normal color is generally lightgray, the load is slightly heavier than dark gray. Diesel engine at work, oftensmoke in diesel engine exhaust smoke, blue smoke, white smoke and gray four,they are one of the conditions that determine the diesel engine failure,specific analysis is as follows:

  An exhaust black smoke (soot)

  Another crazy black smoke the Gu smoke, diesel exhaustblack smoke most important reason is the fuel mixture is too thick, combustiblemixture formation causes bad or burning imperfect. The diesel engine in thehigh-temperature, high pressure combustion conditions, local hypoxia, crackingand dehydrogenation and the formation of tiny carbon as the main ingredient ofsolid particles, the combustion chamber fuel incomplete combustion performance.Diesel non-homogeneous combustion, chemical reaction conditions of each regionof the combustion chamber is inconsistent, and change over time, so the blacksmoke is likely to by many different ways natural. Diesel is a complexhydrocarbons, sprayed into the combustion chamber unburned diesel fuel bypyrolysis, the formation of carbon black, along with the exhaust gas when theexhaust discharge to the formation of black smoke. Black smoke is a product ofincomplete combustion of hydrocarbon combustion under anoxic conditions in thehigh-temperature pyrolysis process of release and polymerization. Fuelinjection in the combustion chamber wall, under certain circumstances, theformation of a liquid film, the film is part of the final evaporation,combustion depends on the evaporation rate of fuel vapor and oxygen mixturevelocity. Four weeks the concentration of oxygen in the gas is too low, or amixture of speed is not enough, the film evaporation from thefuel gas will decompose and produce unburned hydrocarbons, incomplete oxidationproducts and smoke.

  Black smoke diesel engine combustion process inherentlycan be summarized into three stages - nucleation stage, single grain stage,single grain of burning disappears or agglomeration into larger floc. Affectits natural original due to:

  1, piston rings, cylinder linerwear of valve, piston rings, cylinder liner wear, caused by compressionpressure is insufficient, and the channeling of the oil burning test winternegative cylinder at the end of the compression stroke, the normal change inratio of the mixture is mixed, so that the fuel in the absence of oxygen underthe conditions of combustion, the combustion process is easily produce coke,the exhaust air from the formation of a large number of black smoke.

  2, the shape of the combustionchamber to change the combustion chamber shape because of manufacturing qualityand long-term use of the technical conditions of the compression I sew toolarge, too small, and the piston position is wrong, will cause the combustionchamber shape and volume changes, thus affecting the fuel and air mixture thequality of fuel combustion conditions deteriorate.

  Bad injector diesel engine exhaustsmoke and fuel atomization quality is closely related to diesel fuel injectionprocess, the end of each injector Pro, injection pressure decreased, the poorquality of atomization, so that the droplets diameter 4-5 times larger than themain injection phase of the oil droplets (volume about 100 times larger), thesedroplets evaporate burning time is short and the surrounding oxygenconcentration is low, and easily produce soot. Injector atomization,atomization, poor or drop of oil, fuel and air mixture within the cylinder cannot be fully nor complete combustion. Injector bad work caused by the emissionof black smoke phenomenon is more obvious when the diesel engine at low speed, low speed cylinder intakeswirl is weak, reducing the possibility of oil droplets or oil beam by air tobreak up and stay longer than long, the more easily the formation of carbonblack discharge. )

  4, oil overload oil overload, the increase in theamount of fuel into the cylinder, resulting in incomplete combustion of fueloil and more gas less. In addition, work overload, poor fuel quality, operatingtemperature is too low will cause the exhaust black smoke, diesel fuel in hightemperature pyrolysis reaction is inevitable, especially in the spacecombustion of diesel, due to the high temperature gas surrounded liquiddroplets, resulting in the cracking reaction conditions, so early in thecombustion generated a lot of carbon particles, this has been confirmed byhigh-speed photography of the combustion process. The diesel engine in thenormal combustion, before the exhaust valve opens, burning the early formationof carbon particles can basically burn the exhaust is basically a smoke-free.Only in certain adverse conditions, carbon can not be timely burning butreunion adsorption www.zfdjz.com larger soot particles or floc formed in thecylinder and exhaust process, so that the exhaust black smoke.

  5, the fuel supply advance angle adjustment improper

  (1) fuel supply advance angle is too large, fuel premature sprayed into the combustionchamber, low pressure and temperature within the cylinder, the fuel is notignited, reaches a certain pressure and temperature within the cylinder whenthe piston upward, combustible mixture combustion. In direct injection dieselengine, when the other parameters constant, increase the fuel injection advanceangle can reduce exhaust smoke. Increase the fuel injection advance angle willmake longer ignition delay period, the increase in fuel sprayed into thecylinder before ignition, premixed increased pre-mixed gas increased to speedup the combustion speed, combustion may end earlier, so that the main theformation of the combustion of carbon particles has to stay more time underhigh temperature and high temperature, carbon particle oxidation disappears.However, the increase in premature fuel injection amount of premixed fuel,diesel crude, combustion noise increased, and caused a large mechanical load,and more smoke emissions (COX).

  (2) The fuel supply advance angle is too small, fuel sprayed into the cylinderlate part of the fuel is too late to formation of the combustible mixture to beseparated or discharged, causing part of exhaust gas in the exhaust pipe withthe fuel material by pyrolysis, combustion, the formation of black smoke alongwith the exhaust discharge.

  Second, the exhaust take Lanyan

  Exhaust take Lanyan general diesel engine after prolonged use, and slowly beganto burn the oil caused, with the blue smoke worsens, more and more burning oil,you should consider the maintenance of diesel engines. Sometimes fuel mixedwith water, or water to leak into the combustion chamber, causing the change ofcombustion, the diesel engine will take the light blue smoke. Affect thenatural main factors:

  An air filter, intake poor or oil basin oil is too high (oil bath air filter),so that the gas into the cylinder to reduce the normal change in ratio of thefuel mixture, resulting in more oil gas less incomplete combustion of fuel,will cause the exhaust to take Lanyan.

  2, the lubricating oil sump added too much lubricant easy coming into thecombustion chamber diesel engine running.

  3, less than 40% of long-term, low-load (rated power) operation, the gapbetween the piston and cylinder is too large, so that the lubricating oil sumpeasily flee in the fuel mixture in the combustion test of winter and thecylinder gas mixture and change the Blend gas the normal proportion ofincomplete combustion, causing the exhaust to take Lanyan.

  4, the piston ring stuck or excessive wear and tear, lack of flexibility wheninstalling the direction of the piston ring chamfer hold against the oil feedinto the blue water gas smoke emissions after combustion in the trial of winteroil combustion.

  5, in the body leading to the cylinder head oil passages around the cylinderpad burned piston, cylinder liner wear and piston ring counterparts conditionsresulting in lubricants Upward combustion test in winter, and with burning andfuel mixture.

  Third, the exhaust white smoke

  White smoke is the exhaust smoke color white and colorless, white water vaporwhite, said exhaust contains water or containing unburned fuel components.White smoke was the state of the droplet, and blue smoke compared with thediameter slightly larger, typically greater than 1μm. Refraction of light iswhite, the white smoke of the diesel engine is unburned hydrocarbons (includingfuel and lubricant), water vapor and incomplete combustion intermediates (suchas oxygen-containing hydrocarbon), in addition to water vapor, they also belongto particle areas. The diesel engine is just starting or cooler state, theexhaust pipe white smoke is due to the low evaporative emission of dieselengine cylinder temperature formation, especially in winter. Diesel engines incold weather to run in strict diesel engine temperature is low, the exhausttemperature is low, water vapor exhaust is condensed into water vapor to form awhite smoke is normal. When the diesel engine to normal temperature, exhausttemperature is normal, still emit white smoke, indicating that the dieselengine is not working properly, can be judged to be the diesel engine fault.Affect the natural main factors:

  6 diesel engine has just started within the individual cylinder combustion(especially in winter), unburned fuel mixture with the other cylinder exhaustdischarge to form water vapor smoke.

  7, piston, cylinder liner wear serious cause compression force, resulting inincomplete combustion.

  8, fuel, water and air. Water and air with the fuel injection into the cylinderto the formation of uneven fuel mixture, combustion is incomplete, resulting ina lot of unburned hydrocarbons discharged outside the machine.

  9, the cylinder liner crack or cylinder head gasket is damaged, with thecooling water temperature, pressure, cooling water feed into the cylinder.Venting the formation of easily formation of mist or vapor

  10, the fuel supply advance angle is too small. The piston up to the fuel sprayinto the cylinder before the cylinder top is too small, the formation of themore dilute the combustible mixture, the late injection to reduce the premixedfuel consumption, pre-mixed reduced. Pre-mixture is reduced, reducing thecombustion speed, combustion end of the late burning the formation of a largenumber of water vapor of smoke.

  Fourth, the exhaust take Misty

  Exhaust to take light gray smoke, diesel engines work is fairly normal, but thesmoke color heavier gray or close to the xuan is not normal, in addition to thesmoke xuan of reasons, may also have poor intake air supply does not goodreason. Remove the intake air filter, exhaust smoke color deep shallow or evenbecome colorless, that is, air filter blockage, should check the cause of thereasons for poor intake.

  Poor injector spray, the injection pressure is too low, drip phenomenon. Fuelmixture in the cylinder, uneven, incomplete combustion and produce largeamounts of unburned hydrocarbon exhaust easily the formation of mist or vapor.



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| 发布时间:2016.10.14    来源:legou0916.com 佛山发电机